Pangasinan is located on the west central area of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. It is bordered by La Union to the north, Benguet and Nueva Vizcaya to the northeast, Nueva Ecija to the southeast, and Zambales and Tarlac to the south. To the west of Pangasinan is the South China Sea. The province also encloses the Lingayen Gulf.

The province has a land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi).[18] It is 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Manila, 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of Baguio City, 115 kilometres (71 mi) north of Subic International Airport and Seaport, and 80 square kilometres (31 sq mi) north of Clark International Airport. At the coast of Alaminos, the Hundred islands have become a famous tourist spot.

The terrain of the province, as part of the Central Luzon plains, is typically flat, with a few parts being hilly and/or mountainous. The northeastern municipalities of San ManuelSan NicolasNatividadSan Quintin and Umingan have hilly to mountainous areas, situated at the tip of the Cordillera mountains. The Zambales mountains extend to the province’s western towns of LabradorMabiniBugallonAguilarMangataremDasol, and Infanta forming the mountainous portions of those towns.

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) reported several inactive volcanoes in the province: AmorongBalungao, Cabaluyan, Cahelietan, Candong, and Malabobo. PHIVOLCS reported no active or potentially active volcanoes in Pangasinan. A caldera-like landform is located between the towns of Malasiqui and Villasis with a center at about 15° 55′ N and 120° 30′ E near the Cabaruan Hills.

Several rivers traverse the province. The longest is the Agno River, which originates from the Cordillera Mountains of Benguet, eventually emptying its waters into the Lingayen Gulf. Other major rivers include the Bued River, Angalacan River, Sinocalan River, Patalan River and the Cayanga River.

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